Risk Factors References

Boggess KA, Beck JD, Murtha AP, Moss K, Offenbacher S. Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for small-for-gestational-age infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194(5):1316-1322.

Buduneli N, Baylas H, Buduneli E, Turkoglu O, Kose T, Dahlen G. Periodontal infections and pre-term low birth weight:  a case-control study. J Clin. Periodontol. 2005;32(2):174-181.

Canakci V, Canakci CF, Canakci H, Canakci E, Cicek Y, Ingec M, Ongoz M, Demir T, Dilsiz A, Yagiz H. Periodontal Disease as a risk factor for pre-eclampsia:  a case-control study. Aust N Z  J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;44:568-573.

Craig RG, Boylan R, Yip J, Bamgboye P, Koutsoukos J, Mijares D, Ferrer J, Imam M, Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Prevalence and risk indicators for destructive periodontal diseases in 3 urban American minority populations. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28:524-535.

Dasanayake AP Russell S, Boyd D, Madianos PN, Foster T, Hill E.  Preterm low birth weight and Periodontal Disease among African Americans. Dent Clin North Am. 2003;47:115-125.

D’Aiuto F, Parkar M, Andreau G, Brett PM, Ready D, Tonetti MS. Periodontitis and atherogenesis:  causal association or simple coincidence? J Clin. Periodontol., 2004;31(5):402-411.

D’Aiuto F, Orlandi M, Gunsolley JC.  Evidence that periodontal treatment improves biomarkers and CVD outcomes. J Periodontol. 2013;84(4 Suppl.):S85-S105

Davenport ES, Williams CE, Sterne JA, Murad S, Sivapathasundram V, Curtis MA. Maternal Periodontal Disease and preterm low birth weight:  case-control study. J Dent. Res. 2002;81(5):313-318.

Dietrich T, Sharma P, Walter C, Weston P, Beck J.  The epidemiological evidence behind the association between periodontitis and incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.  J Periodontol, 2013;84(4 Suppl):S70-S84.

Goepfert AR, Jeffcoat MK, Andrews WW, Faye-Petersen O, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC. Periodontal Disease and Upper Genital Tract Inflammation in early spontaneous birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(4):777-783.

Heasman L, Stacey F, Preshaw PM, McCracken GI, Hepburn S,, Heasman PA.  The effect of smoking on periodontal treatment response:  a review of clinical evidence.  J Clin. Periodontol. 2006;33:241-253.

Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Disease progression:  identification of high-risk groups and individuals for periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32 Suppl 6:210-213

Hyman JJ, Reid BC. Epidemiologic risk factors for periodontal attachment loss among adults in the United States.  J Clin Periodontol 2003;30:230-237

Jeffcoat MK, Geurs NC, Reddy MS, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC. Periodontal Infection and preterm birth:  results of a prospective study.  J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132:875-880.

Johnson GK, Hill M.  Cigarette Smoking and the Periodontal Patient. J Periodontol. 2004;75(2):196-209.

Karimbux NY, Saraiya VM, Elangovan S, Allareddy V , Kornman KS, Duff GW. Interleukin-1 gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Periodontitis in Adult Whites:  A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Periodontol. 2012;83(11):1407-1419.

Kornman KS, Crane A, Wang HY, di Giovine FS, Newman MG, Pirk FW, Wilson TG Jr, Higginbottom FL, Duff GW., The interleukin-1 genotype as a severity factor in adult periodontal disease J Clin. Periodontol., 1997;24:72-77.

Krall EA, Dietrich T, Nunn ME, Garcia RI.  Risk of tooth loss after cigarette smoking cessation. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006 3(4):A115.

Lockhart PB, Bolger AF, Papapanou PN, Osinbowale O, Trevisan M, Levison ME, Taubert KA, Newburger JW, Gornik HL, Gewitz MH, Wilson WR, Smith SC Jr, Baddour LM. Periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease:  does the evidence support an independent association?:  a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;125:2520-44

Lopez NJ, Smith PC, Gutierrez J. Higher risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in women with periodontal disease. J Dent Res. 2002;81:58-63.

Lopez NJ, Da Silva I, Ipinza J, Gutierrez J. Periodontal therapy reduces the rate of preterm low birth weight in women with pregnancy associated gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2005;76:11(suppl)2144-53

Madianos PN, Bobetsis YA, Offenbacher S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and periodontal disease:  pathogenic mechanisms. J Periodontol. 2013;84(4s):170s-180s.

McGuire, MK, Nunn ME. Prognosis Versus Actual Outcome. IV.  The Effectiveness of Clinical Parameters and IL-1 Genotype in Accurately Predicting Prognoses and Tooth Survival. J. Periodontol. 1999. 70:1;49-56

Michalowicz BS, Diehl SR, Gunsolley JC, Sparks BS, Brooks CN, Koertge TE, Califano JV, Evidence of substantial genetic basis for risk of adult periodontitis. J. Periodontol. 2000; 71:1699-1707

Michalowicz BS, Hodges JS, DiAngelis AJ, Lupo VR, Novak MJ, Ferguson JE, Buchanan W, Bofill J, Papapanou PN, Mitchell DA, Matseoane S, Tschida PA, OPT study.  Treatment of Periodontal disease and the risk of preterm birth. N Eng J Med. 2006;355(18):1885-1894.

Michalowicz BS, Gustafsson A, Thumbigere-Math V, Buhlin K. The effects of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. J Periodontol. 2013;84(4 suppl):S195-208.

Mitchell-Lewis D, Engebretson SP, Chen J, Lamster IB Papapanou PN. Periodontal infections and preterm birth:  early findings from a chohort ofyoung minority women in New York. Eur J Oral Sci 2001;109(1):34-39.

Mokeem SA, Molla GN, Al-Jewair TS. The prevalence and relationship between periodontal disease and pre-term low birth weight infants at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2004;15(5):40-56.

Moore S, Randhawa M, Ide M. A Case-control study to investigate an association between adverse pregnancy outcome and periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32(1):1-5.

Nunn ME, Understanding the etiology of periodontitis:  an overview of periodontal risk factors.  Periodontol. 2000, 2003;32:11-23

Offenbacher S, Katz V, Fertik G, Collins J, Boyd D, Maynor G, McKaig R, Beck J. Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. J Periodontol. 1996;67:1103-1113.

Offenbacher S, Beck JD, Moss K, Mendoza L, Pazuette DW, Barrow DA, Couper DJ, Steward DD, Falkner KL, Graham SP, Grossi S, Gunsolley JC, Madden T, Maupome G, Trevisan M, Van Dyke TE, Genco RJ. Results from the periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) Study;  a pilot multicetnered, randomized, controlled trial to study effects of periodontal therapy in a secondary prevention model of cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol., 2009;80(2):190-201.

Page RC, Krall EA, Martin J, Mancl L, Garcia RI. Validity and accuracy of a risk calculator in predicting periodontal disease.  J Am. Dent. Assoc. 2002; 133(5):569-576.

Palmer RM, Wilson RF, Hasan AS, Scott DA.  Mechanisms of action of environmental factors-tobacco smoking. J Clin. Periodontol. 2005;32 Suppl 6:210-213.

Radnai M, Gorzo I, Nagy E, Urban E, Pal A.  A possible association between preterm birth and early periodontitis.  A pilot study. JClin. Periodontol. 2004;31(9):736-741.

Scabbia A, Cho K-S, Sigurdsson TJ, Kim C-K, Trombelli L.  Cigarette smoking negatively afftects healing response following flap debridement surgery.  J Periodontol. 2001;72:43-49.

Schenkein HA, Loos BG.  Inflammatory mechanisms linking periodontal diseases to cardiovascular diseases.  J Periodontol 2013;84(4 Suppl.):S51-S69)

Socransky SS, Haffajee AD, Smith C, Duff GW. Microbiological parameters associated with IL-1 gene polymorphisms in periodontitis patients. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2000;27:810-818.

Susin C, Oppermann RV, Haugejorden O, Albandar JM.  Periodontal attachment loss attributable to cigarette smoking in an urban Brazilian population.  J Clin. Periodontol. 2004;31(11):951-958.

Tomar SM, Asma S. Smoking Attributable Periodontitis in the United States:  Findings from NHANES III. J Periodontol. 2000:71(5):743-751.

Tonetti MS, D’Aiuto F, Nibali L, Donald A, Storry C, Parkar M, Suvan J, Hingorani AD, Vallance P, Deanfield J. Treatment of Periodontitis and Endothelial Funcion. N Engl. J. Med., 2007;356(9):911-920.